Agreements Of The Potsdam Conference
The Potsdam Conference of 1945 had a great political influence on the fate of post-war Europe and on the question of peace. It was the third and last in the series of conferences of the heads of state of the USSR, the United States and the United Kingdom – the Allies of The Second World War. Conference participants discussed the content and procedures of peace agreements in Europe, but did not seek to draft peace treaties. This task has been entrusted to a Council of Foreign Ministers. The main concerns of the Big Three, their foreign ministers and staffs were the immediate management of defeated Germany, the delimitation of Poland`s borders, the occupation of Austria, the definition of the role of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe, the fixing of reparations and the continuation of the war against Japan. The friendship and goodwill that had largely marked previous war conferences were lacking in Potsdam, for each nation cared most about its own interests, and Churchill was particularly suspicious of Stalin`s motives and intransigence. The Potsdam Conference, held from 17 July to 2 August 1945 near Berlin, was the last of the three major meetings of World War II. The Prime Minister of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, the new AMERICAN President Harry S. Truman and the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (replaced on 28th July by his successor Clement Attlee) took part. On July 26, the leaders issued a statement calling for Japan`s “unconditional surrender” and concealing the fact that they had privately agreed to have Japan guard its emperor. For the rest, the conference focused on post-war Europe. It was agreed that a Council of Foreign Ministers would be consulted, to which the big three, China and France, would consult.
The German military administration was set up with an Allied Central Control Board (the requirement that membership decisions be unanimous was later paralyzing). Finally, the leaders concluded various agreements on the German economy, with a focus on the development of agriculture and non-military industry. The institutions that had controlled the Nazi economy were to be decentralized, but all of Germany would be treated as one economic entity. War criminals would be tried. Stalin`s request to define the border between Poland and Germany was postponed until the peace treaty, but the conference agreed to his transfer from the country east of the Oder and Neisse from Germany to Poland. As far as reparations are concerned, a compromise has been drawn up on the basis of an exchange of capital goods from the western zone for raw materials from the east. . . .